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Reactive Power Control In Electric Systems MILLER TIMOTHY J. E.. A unified compensation and the electric arc furnaceharmonicsreactive power coordinationselected bibliographyindex. Download ebook PDF download. Reactive Power. Reactive Power Control in Electric Systems by T. J. E. Miller, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. Reactive Power Control in Electric Systems [Timothy J. E. Miller] on webtiekittcenve.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A unified approach to the fundamental.
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For control. This control may be accomplished in large simple. We have to keep in mind that there are really two reasons for the ap- course.
It is now more important than ever to design and operate power systems with not only the highest practicable efficiency but also the highest degree of security and reliability. The authors are all practising power-system engineers who have had a total of many decades of experience in the technologies relat- ed to reactive power.
For a given distribution of power. Practising engineers in the utility in- dustry and in industrial plants will find both the theory and the descrip- tion of reactive power control equipment invaluable in solving problems in power-factor correction.
Because of the fundamental importance of reactive power control. These requirements are motivating a wide range of advances in the tech- nology of ac power transmission and the purpose of this book is to describe some of the more important theoretical and practical develop- ments. This principle is applied throughout the system.
Reactive power control. Florrda October About thirty percent of all primary energy resources worldwide are used to generate electrical energy. Thus the present book. In universities the book should form an ideal basis for a postgraduate or even an undergraduate course in power systems.
Chapter 4 introduces and describes in detail the principles of modern hostile generation sites have been developed. Rapid schemes has created a requirement for reactive power control on the ac response excitation systems and new control strategies have steadily side of the converters.
Chapter 1 is often required in connection with loads which are also sources of har- also unified in its approach to the compensation or reactive power control monics. The subject of reactive power control is closely connected with the sub- niques of compensation by sectioning.
Both the varistor and the means for controlling SSR monest type of disturbance. Preface xv Xiv Preface its power-factor correction attributes. It also shows In Chapter 2 the principles of transmitting power at high voltages and clearly the advantages of compensation on the steel-producing process.
Chapter 5 describes the high-power ac thyristor con- developed. The prob- switching phenomena in the thyristor-switched capacitor is included. Chapters 1 through 3 deal with the theory of ac power transmission. Reactive power control is an essential tool in maintaining the quality of effective means for increasing the power transmission capability and sta- supply.
A separate reason for the importance of harmonics in a book on of loads. In Chapter 7 the series capacitor is described. Chapter 8 on synchronous condensers has been included because of pose on the supply large and rapid variations in their demand for power the continuing importance of this class of compensation equipment. In reactor.
In Chapter 9 there is a detailed treatment of reactive power control in All these aspects of ac power engineering are discussed. The unified approach to the "compensation" problem is these are required for other reasons such as the reduction of flicker?.
In many cases the power transmitted through older circuits finally its properties as a set of sequence networks capable of voltage sta- has been increased. Certain types of industrial load. As a and reactive power. The solution of the sub- ers and color television receivers.
Partic- spite of the parallel development of dc transmission technology. Oth- ers who helped at various stages include D. Barbara West for her tremendous assistance in the preparation and often the repair of the manuscript. Special thanks are also due to Mrs. Piwko and Dr. This promising new subject is given the last word in the authors. This book does not attempt to set out reactive power coordination. Minimization of system losses is one of several possible verse consequences arising out of the interpretation of material in the optimal conditions which can be determined and maintained by computer book.
James Lommel. The Institution of Electrical Engineers is. Christine Quaresimo. Also to S. Eike Richter of Schenectady. We are also especially grateful to Dr. United States Steel is ac- knowledged for the Frontispiece arc furnace photograph. Miss Kathy Kinch. Acknowledgment is also due to the U. Berninger and Dr.
The chapters are all written from the individual points of view of analysis and control. Mallick made several helpful suggestions in connection with Chapters 1 and 2. John A.
Many people have contributed to the writing and production of this T. Laszio Gyu- gyi of Westinghouse Electric for permission to use some of his ideas in Section 9 of Chapter 1.
Acknowledgment is also due to the staff of John Wiley and Sons for their expert guidance throughout the writing and production of the book. Department of Energy and to Dr. Chapter Boenig of Los Alamos Laboratory in connection with studies which formed the basis of some sections in Chapter 3. Special thanks are due to Dr.
Starbird and his staff. Philadelphia Electric Co. Reactive Power Bias. Acceptance Standards for the Quality of Supply. Compensation for Unity Power Factor. The Requirement for Compensation. Voltage Regulation with a Varying Inductive Load. Power Factor and Its Correction. Compensation for Constant Voltage.
The Ideal Compensating Admittance Network. Loads Requiring Compensation. Load Compensation in Terms of Symmetrical Components. Specification of a Load Compensator. Power Factor Improvement. Voltage Regulation. Engineering Factors Affecting Stability and Voltage 2. First-Swing Period and Transient Stability. Voltage Control by Means of Switched Shunt 6. First-Swing Period.
The Uncompensated Line Under Load: Effect of 3. Transient Period. The Midpoint Shunt Reactor or Capacitor. Static Compensators. Dynamic Working of the Midpoint Compensator. Four Characteristic Time Periods. Oscillatory Period. Fundamental Concepts. Uncompensated Transmission Lines. Compensation by Sectioning Dynamic Shunt Compensation. Fundamental Transmission Line Equation.
Preventing Voltage Instability with Static 3. Electrical Parameters. The Need for Adjustable Reactive Compensation. The Effect of Static Shunt Compensation on 3. Load Power. Example of a Series-Compensated Line. Compensated Transmission Lines. The Oscillatory Period.
Passive and Active Compensators. The Dynamics of an Electric Power System. Types of Compensation: The Transient Period. Compensator Applications. Fundamental Requirements in ac Power Transmission. Maximum 4. Passive Shunt Compensation. Historical Background. Properties of Static Compensators. Compensation and System Dynamics. Surge Impedance and Natural Loading.
Uniformly Distributed Fixed Compensation. Main Types of Compensator. Compensator Dynamic Performance. Example of Line Compensated by Sectioning. Objectives and Practical Limitations. First-Swing and Oscillatory Periods. The Uncompensated Line on Open-Circuit. Synchronous Condensers. Uniformly Distributed Regulated Shunt 4. Series Compensation. Series Capacitor Compensation.
Control of Open-Circuit Voltage with Shunt 5. HVDC Applications. Minimizing Transient Swings. General Comments on Cooling Systems. Basic Electrical Characteristics. Cooling System. A N E Types of Compensator. Principles of Operation. Capacitor Units. Power System Voltage Control. Variation of Thyristor Controller Losses during 3.
Saturated-Reactor Compensators. Resonance Effects with Series Capacitors. Protective Gear. Static Starting. Thermal Considerations. The Thyristor-Controlled Transformer. Liquid Cooling System. Variations of the Once-through Filtered Air 4.
Switching Transients and the Concept of Transient. Varistor Protective Gear. The Thyristor as a Switch. The Thyristor-Switched Capacitor. Compensation Factors. Description of Thyristor Controller. Gating Energy. R-C Snubber Circuit. Reinsertion Schemes. Physical Arrangement. Recirculated Air System. Phasor Diagram. Control Strategies. Machine Constants. Control System of Thyristor Controller. Starting Motor. Reduced Voltage Starting.
Simplified Equivalents. Once-through Filtered Air System. Emergency Reactive Power Supply. An Example of a Thyristor Controller. General Equipment Design.
Performance Testing. Description of Main Components. Overvoltage Protection. Condenser Design Features. Starting Methods. Future Developments and Requirements.
Basic Arrangement. Condenser Operation. Experience with Reactive Power Dispatch. Types of Compensator. The Arc Furnace in Steelmaking.
Reactive Power Management. Filter Systems. Utility Objectives. The Arc Furnace as an Electrical Load. Flicker and Principles of Its Compensation.
Equipment Impact. Determination of Reactive Power Demand. Shunt Capacitors. Thyristor-Controlled Compensators. Transmission Benefits. Control and Protection. Effect of Harmonics on Electrical Equipment. Contents Contents 6. Flicker Compensation Strategies.
Harmonic Sources. Auxiliary Systems. Utility Practices. Telephone Interference. Station Design Considerations. General Nature of the nicker Problem. Electrical Supply Requirements of Arc Furnaces. Basic One-Line Arrangement. Mathematical Modeling. Symbols Susceptance. V Reactance. Ohm Apparent power..
Boldface symbols denote complex numbers i. S Complex operator ej2rr'3 Current. V Conductance. VAr inductive positive Resistance. Ohm Power. The asterisk denotes complex conjugation. S Source voltage. Chapter 1 T. Plaiu italic type denotes the magnitude of a phasor voltage or current. VA Voltage. Lower case symbols for voltage. W Reactive power. A study of how the quality of supply can be degraded by such loads will lead Subscripts to the definition of the "ideal" compensator.
S time. The supply utilities also have good reasons for not transmitting unnecessary reactive power from imum fluctuation in rms supply voltage averaged over a stated period of generators to loads: Specifications of this kind can be made more precise through the Z Impedance. We can form a notion of the quality of supply in terms of how nearly power-factors.
In this chapter we identify some of the characteristics of power systems P Power-factor angle. The load current constant are the voltage and frequency at the supply point.
In load compensation there are three main objectives: Objectives in Load Compensation 3 Y Admittance. Power-factor correction. Load Maximum permitted Real or resistive component 1. Knee-point In later sections the theory of compensation is developed for steady-state and slowly varying conditions.
Load balancing. The term load compensation is used Imaginary or reactive component where the reactive power management is effected for a single load or group of loads. In particular these parameters would be independent of the size and characteristics of consumers' loads.
Improvement of voltage regulation. Section 1. In an ideal system. Most industrial loads have lagging different loads as a result of variations in the current taken by each one. Ohm use of statistical concepts. In three-phase systems. Only the real power is ultimately useful in energy conversion and the phase currents and voltages are balanced must also be included in the the excess load current represents a waste to the consumer. In an ideal ac power system. A definition of "quality of supply" in pay not only for the excess cable capacity to carry it but also for the numerical terms involves the specification of such quantities as the max.
The techniques used. The ideal compensator would also consume zero aver- by means of compensators and other equipment which can be deployed age power.
Supply tariffs to industrial customers almost parameter in the quality of supply. Harmonics are usually eliminated by filters. Under unbalanced delay. A further property of the This approach would in general be uneconomic and would introduce ideal compensator is the ability to respond instantaneously in performing problems associated with high fault levels and switchgear ratings.
Frequency variations are not considered in this chapter. The ideal compensator will not be expected to eliminate harmonic distor- The most obvious way to improve voltage regulation would be to tion existing in the load current or the supply voltage this function being "strengthen" the power system by increasing the size and number of assigned to an appropriate harmonic filter.
Be capable of operating independently in the three phases. This is a device which a period of a few minutes or hours.
In particular. Such components can have undesirable effects. To protect against this. All compensation problems and frequent reference will be made to harmonics loads vary their demand for reactive power.
Present a constant-voltage characteristic at its terminals. It is its three main functions. The Ideal Compensator 5 4 used at full efficiency.
Unbalanced operation gives rise to components of current in the designed for power-factor correction or phase-balancing is not required to wrong phase-sequence i. Most tend to improve voltage regulation. Provide a controllable and variable amount of reactive power pre- of equipment including several types of compensators depend on bal- cisely according to the requirements of the load.
In all cases. Certain types 1. The Theory of Load Compensation 1. Not only are the reactive power variations large about 50 MVAr. The nonlinear loads usually generate harmonics as well as fundamental-frequency voltage variations.
Concurrence of maximum reai and reactive power requirements in The degree of voltage variation is assessed at the "gauge point" or "point multiple-load plants. Duty-cycle in terms of the real and reactive power requirements mcluding the supply tariff. Loads which cause fluctuations in the supply voltage may have to be It is often the case that the consumer assumes mode is to use thyristor controls. Typical of loads requiring compensation are arc furnaces. Generation of harmonics.
The modern trend with large dc drives which are used in an "on-off" ers may be affected. Practical Considerations 7 The burden of responsibility for providing compensation divides between motor starts are avoided by having "soft starts".
Type of drive dc or ac. Arc furnace compensators. By virtue of its rotating mass it also stores kinetic energy which tends to support the supply system t. Figure 1 shows age regulation.
Figure 1. In many cases. It is typical that for sizeable industrial loads. Typical variation in the reactive power requirements of a steel rollrng mill. Rate of change of real and reactive power or the time taken for factor is less than 0. These loads can be classified into those which are inherently non- linear in operation and those which cause disturbance by being switched on and off.
PLANTS OF CHARLES P. STEINMETZ MEMORIAL PARK, SCHENECTADY
A first idea of the compensation requirement can be formed by charac- 1. Loads Requiring Compensation terizing the load according to the following headings: Whether a given load should have power-factor correction in the steady 1.
Rated voltage and limits of voltage between which the reactive Several other types of loads are sensitive to supply voltage variations. Specification of a Load Compensator The first objectionable effect of supply voltage variations in a distribution The parameters and factors which need to be considered when specifying system is the disturbance to the lighting level produced by tungsten a load compensator are summarized in the following list.
Compensation may Special control requirements. Environmental factors: Mine hoists. Fundamental Theory of Compensation Y 1. The list is not filament lamps. The first purpose of a theory of compensation must be to explam the re- See Reference 3. In the Maximum harmonic distortion with compensator in service. The degree to which variations are objectionable depends intended to be complete.
Frequency and its variation. TABLE 1 temperature. Response time of the compensator for a specified disturbance. Very often the variation in supply voltage is detrimental to the perfor.
Acceptance Standards for the Quality of Supply 1.
Cabling requirements and layout. The theory is developed first for stationary or nearly stationary condi- tions. The different models for each element are. Qp represents the magnetizing reactive power. The compensator can be modeled as a vari- able impedance. The load current has a "resistive" component.
Power-factor correction phasor or quasi-stationary equations are adequate for determining the rat- ing and external characteristics of the compensator. The choick of model used for each element can be varied according to requirements. The ap- parent power supplied to the loads is i that is. The angle between V and Ipis 4. Power Factor and Its Correction nevertheless an inherent requirement of the load.
Fundamental Theory of Compensation Section 1. The supply system.
Thus the supply system can be modeled as a Thkvenin equivalent circuit with an open-circuit voltage and either a series impedance. The load current is 11 and inductive loads Bl is negative and Q p is positive.. For loads whose power and reactive power vary rapidly such as electric arc furnaces. The principle of power-factor correction is to compensate for the reac- T Note that S P. Ix is negative.
Cable ratings must be increased accordingly. In most practical instances. For lagging plied from a voltage V. In later sections. In practice a compensator such as a bank of capacitors or in- ductors can be divided into parallel sections. Figure 2d shows the phasor relationships.
The rated current of the compensator is given by QJ V. The foregoing analysis has taken no account of the effect of supply From Figure 2c.
Most loads are inductive. The compensator current is given by i I. Relieved of the reac- tive requirements of the load. The compensator requires no tors e. Then we introduck the concept of the supply system over a period of time.
More sophisticated compensa- Thus P. Voltage Regulation The load may be partially compensated tie. See Chapter 4. In general the reactive power of a fixed- rated power Pl of the load by reactance compensator will not vary in sympathy with that of the load as the supply voltage varies. The supply current I. If the supply sys- tem is represented by the single-phase Thbvenin equivalent circuit shown in Figure 3a. In the absence of a compensator. Figure 3 0 uncompensated.
Reactive Power Control by TJ Miller
It is caused by the voltage drop in the supply impedance carrying the load current. What is important here is that there is always a solution for Q. The algebraic solution for Q. Fundamental Theory of Compensation Voltage regulation can be defined as the proportional or per-unit change in supply voltage magnitude associated with a defined change in load current e. By adding a compensator in parallel with the load.
V being the reference phasor. This leads to the following important conclusion: It is clear that both the magnitude and the phase of V. In an actual compensator. This is shown in Figure 3 c for a purely reactive compensator.
Phasor diagram for Figure 3a compensated for constant The reactive power Qp in Equation 12 is replaced by the sum voltage. The required value of Q.. From Equations 10 and That is. It is important to note that the principle refers to change in magnitude being represented by AVR. The expressions for results. Equation 19 is frequently instarztatzeous power-factor: R ratio of the supply system.
For accurate Approximate Formula for the Voltage Regulation. AVR v. We have already seen in Section 1. Ssc which is independent of Q p and not under the control of the compensator. The voltage change phasor is for R. If the compensator is designed to do this. Although approximate. If the system is short-circuited at the load busbar It should be realized that only the magnitude of the voltage is being controlled.
P p and Qj. R ratio i. Fundamental Theory of Compensation 17 A purely reactive compensator can eliminate supply-voltage variations caused by changes in both the real and the reactive power of the load. Equa- tions Substituting in Equation 12 tion 12 by Q.
This relationship can be represented graphically. Qs mately linear. Supply system approxtmate voltagelreactive power characteristic. Although the characteristic is only approximate.
An alternate representation is Compensator Q. Figure 5 a shows the arrangement of the system. Throughout the unregulated range. This characteristic is drooping.
Approximate Reactive Power Characteristics 21 Figure Equation The control characteristic of the compensator is shown in Figure 5d. Figure 5c shows the variation The reactive power Q. I S s c just corresponds to the maximum permitted voltage swing AV. Power Factor Improvement The average power-factor of the inductively compensated inductive load This situation is illustrated in Figure 5c.
This equation illustrates the "leverage" which the compensator average reactive power of the load Ql were one-half its maximum.. In the regulated range. Note that we have a purely inductive compensator holding constant supply The two segments of Figure 5c can be identified as an unregulated voltage with an inductive load..
Replacing Q p in Equation 23 by Q. The compensator is rated at Q. The minimum compensator rating can be chosen so that -Q. If the com. When the Ioad reactive power Q p increases. Figure 5c shows that the compensator reactive-power rating need be no Q. This affords a useful economy in Figure 5b.
Generally this effect will be small. Figure 6c shows the ideal compensator charac. If the shunt capacitor of Figure 7 b is sufficiently Qymax 0 large. Approximate Reactive Power Characteristics 23 To achieve ideal voltage regulation as well as unity average power. In the same way. Approximate voltagelreactive power characteristic of uncompensated sys.
A fixed shunt reactance is cheaper than a variable compensator having the same reactive power rating The saturated reactor compensator. In Figures 5. Unity voltage is now keeping Q. The distinction between an inductive and a capacitive compensator may now seem a little artificial.
Q characteristic extends into both quadrants as in Figure 7a. When combined with a shunt capacitor. Instead of to generate a constant reactive power Q. Resultant 1. The inductive compensator charac- teristic of Figure 5c can be biased in this way by means of a fixed shunt capacitor as shown in Figure 7b.
Figures 6a through 6d designed as an ideal voltage regulator. The minimum capacitive rating of the compensatdr is given by See the worked example in Section 1. They are shown approximately as straight lines under the assump- dl tion that Vdoes not deviate appreciably from 1.
If the compensator is tic of the ideal compensator which achieves this. Instead of absorbing just enough reactive power to make up the total Neglecting the effect of variations in load power. An Example 25 phasor construction or "load flow" calculation. The ThCvenin impedance of the supply system is Z. With tan 4. The accurate forms of Equa- tions 19 and 20 have been used for this calculation.
The phasor diagram is drawn in Figure 8a.
Reactive Power Control in Electric Systems
The voltage magnitude is depressed by The phasor diagram is shown in Figure 8b. The power-factor correction thus improves the voltage regulation enormously compared with the uncompensated case.. The gain may be defined as the change in reactive power Q. In many situations this degree of improve- ment is adequate and the compensator can be designed to provide the reactive power requirement of the load rather than as an ideal voltage regulator.
It has a number of interesting features. Load compensated for unity power-factor. The maximum or rated reactive power Q. The compensator reactive power is not equal to the load reactive power. In the diagram. Consequently J The knee-point voltage V. The voltage magni- tude is held exactly to 1. The gain K. In per unit pu terms The influence of the compensator is determined by substituting for Q? As in Section 1. In the presence of a compensator.
In the following. Very high values of K. Load Compensator a s a Voltage ReguIator ontrol characteristic is linear. The gradient of the load line represents the intrinsic system in which Q Vk according to Equation 32 see Figure 9b The system is as shown in Reactive power balance is expressed by and since Q. O pu compensated reduces to Equation The compensator has two effects immediately 4 pu uncompensated apparent from Equation I IL then the uncompensated voltage sensitivity to load reactive power varia- tions is from Equation 34 If the compensator gain K.
A compensator with K. It is useful to express the gradient. Because the compensator. The load is represented by the delta-connected network of Figure 11 in which the admittances U 2. In taking this point of view. In considering unbalanced loads it is helpful to begin by modeling both the load and the compensator in terms of their admittances and impedances. Although the models are ultimately equivalent. Y 7 and Y are complex and unequal. The analysis will be made sufficiently gen- eral to include power-factor correction at the same time.
More importantly. Changes in the load are assumed to be power-factor. The compensator reactive power correspondingly varies from zero to only 8 MVAr over this range while the voltage regulation is held to 0. When the load reactive power equals the compensator's rated reactive power. To emphasize the fact that the balance depends on the phase sequence.
This is illustrated in Figure! Beginning with the power-factor correction concept of Equation 5. B T are connected in parallel with YP and Y y respectively. As a first step towards balancing this real. Both the overall power-factor and the power-factor in between lines c and a.. Thus if Y? They are real. The ideal load compensator if one exists is conceived as any passive three-phase admittance network which. For positive-sequence voltages. The line currents are not only bal- anced.
Correction of Unsymmetrical Loads sufficiently slow. The resulting load admittances are shown in Figure 1 l c. Although the currents in the three system. The total power is rium within the delta. The construc- tion of the line currents I. Vbc and Vca is shown in Figure 13a. The three-phase positive- sequence line currents can be balanced by connecting between phases b and c the capacitive susceptance together with the inductive susceptance between phases c and a.
Both the line currents and the currents in the three branches of the delta are unbalanced. If the load admittances vary. Correction of Unsymmetrical Loads 37 This is illustrated in Figure 14a. Together with the power. The power-factor in all three phases of the supply important principles: Any unbalatlced linear ungrounded three-phase load can be anced in turn by the same procedure. The real admittances in the remaining phases bc and ca can be bal.
The resulting compensated load admit- tances are purely real and balanced. This equivalent circuit is valid only for positive-sequence voltages. Thus G ' f is balanced by the com. If the load conductances are balanced implying that the load requires the same power in all three phases. The analysis of the unbalanced load has so far been developed implic. In the design of a com. The unbalanced load of Figure l l a is supplied by a balanced three.
In this section. Such considerations are the subjects of later chapters. V What is needed instead is a formula for the desired compensating suscep- tances in terms of these currents and voltages. An analytical difficulty with this approach is negative-sequence sets.
The use of symmetrical components is also useful in determining the The third line of Equation 54 shows that with a balanced load there is no performance of different types of compensator with unbalanced loads.A definition of "quality of supply" in pay not only for the excess cable capacity to carry it but also for the numerical terms involves the specification of such quantities as the max.
Practising engineers in the utility industry and in industrial plants will find both the theory and the description of reactive power control equipment invaluable in solving problems in power-factor correction, voltage control and stabilization, phase balancing and the handling of harmonics. An alternate representation is Q. Navya is currently reading it Nov 01, However, both passive and hybrid technologies are feasible and economically viable solutions.
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