An Introduction to Zulu Language: The language isiZulu is widely spoken in all over South Africa. It is one of the Nguni languages, related to Xhosa, SiSwati and . While copious examples are g iven I have purposely omitted exercises for translation from E n g lish into Zulu., bein g persuaded that in the study of a new lan. NOTE I: THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE ZULU LANGUAGE Zulu Dictionary were out of print; only Colenso's work, very sound but now out of date and.
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that came to me as I took my first steps back into learning Zulu, as I worked But there is more to it: in speaking a language, one appropriates the language. This book is designed to allow anyone who speaks English to learn Zulu for free. Zulu is one of the most spoken languages in South Africa. More than 20 million. Mar 6, PDF | On Sep 4, , Dan Wylie and others published Learning Zulu: A secret history of language in South Africa (Mark Sanders).
They taught the first people with whom they made contact, spreading the word of God, basic writing skills in Zulu. Magema Fuze, Ndiyane and William were among the very first who were taught communicative English and basic writing skills at about Between and , the first translated version of the Bible was produced in very old Zulu orthography.
In the first Zulu Grammar Book by L. Grout was produced". Its oral tradition is very rich but its modern literature is still developing. In he concentrated in editing the newspaper "Ilanga LaseNatali".
His first Zulu novel "Insila kaShaka" was published in We see a steady growth of publications especially novels from onwards.
The clear-cut distinction made today between the Xhosa and the Zulu has no basis in culture or history but arises out of the colonial distinction between the Cape and Natal colonies. Both speak very similar languages and share similar customs, but the historical experiences at the northern end of the Nguni culture area differed considerably from the historical experiences at the southern end. The majority of northerners became part of the Zulu kingdom, which abolished circumcision.
The majority of southerners never became part of any strongly centralised kingdom, intermarried with Khoikhoi and retained circumcision. Many Zulu people converted to Christianity under colonialism. However, although there are many Christian converts, ancestral beliefs have not disappeared. Instead, there has been a mixture of traditional beliefs and Christianity. Ancestral spirits are important in Zulu religious life, and offerings and sacrifices are made to the ancestors for protection, good health, and happiness.
Ancestral spirits come back to the world in the form of dreams, illnesses, and sometimes snakes. The Zulu also believe in the use of magic. Ill fortune such as bad luck and illness is considered to be sent by an angry spirit.
When this happens, the help of a traditional healer is sought, and he or she will communicate with the ancestors or use natural herbs and prayers, to get rid of the problem.
Late nineteenth-century postcard of Zulu Warriors note the Europeans in the background The Zulu are fond of singing as well as dancing. These activities promote unity at all transitional ceremonies such as births, weddings, and funerals.
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All the dances are accompanied by drums and the men dress as warriors see image. Zulu folklore is transmitted through storytelling, praise-poems, and proverbs. These explain Zulu history and teach moral lessons.
Praise-poems poems recited about the kings and the high achievers in life is becoming part of popular culture. The Zulu, especially those from rural areas, are known for their weaving, craft-making, pottery, and beadwork. The Zulu term for "family" umndeni includes all the people staying in a homestead who are related to each other, either by blood, marriage, or adoption.
Syntax of the Modes and Tenses. Idiomatic Verbs Forms and Uses. Syntax of the Partielt.
Subordinate Substantive Sentences. Subordinate Adverbial Sentences. Incidental Sentences.
Collocation of Words. Irregular Defective and Redundant Nouns. B Relative Pronouns.
D Interrogative Pronouns. Classification of Verbs continued.
Number and person. Irregular Verbs.
Defective Verbs. Adverbs of Time. Modified Subject. Compound Sentences.
Syntax of the Noun. Syntax of the Adjective. Of Degrees and Particular Words. Syntax of the Pronoun. Men, women, and children wear beads as accessories. Men wear amabheshu , made of goat or cattle skin, which looks like a waist apron, worn at the back.
They decorate their heads with feathers and fur. Men also wear frilly goatskin bands on their arms and legs. Women wear isidwaba , a traditional Zulu black skirt made of goat or cattle skin. If a woman is not married, she may wear only strings of beads to cover the top part of the body.
If she is married, she will wear a T-shirt. Zulu only wear their traditional clothes on special occasions, such as Shaka's Day and cultural gatherings.
Consequently, the main staple diet consists of cow and agricultural products. This includes barbecued and boiled meat; amasi curdled milk , mixed with dry, ground corn or dry, cooked mealie-meal corn flour ; amadumbe yams ; vegetables; and fruits.
The Zulu traditional beer is not only a staple food but a considerable source of nutrition. It is also socially and ritually important and is drunk on all significant occasions. Drinking and eating from the same plate was and still is a sign of friendship.
It is customary for children to eat from the same dish, usually a big basin. This derives from a "share what you have" belief which is part of ubuntu humane philosophy. However, education is slowly improving with the new government.
Before, children went to school only if their parents could afford to send them. Schooling started at seven years of age and continued until about twenty-four years of age. Since education was not compulsory, pupils could take their time to finish matric high school.
Passing matriculation graduating was and still is regarded as a high achievement by the whole community. After matriculation, those parents who can afford it usually send their children to college. Education and raising a child is like a cycle among the Zulu.
Parents spend all they have to raise and educate their children. In turn, the children take care of their parents and their own children when they start working. A person who breaks this cycle is viewed as a community outcast, one who has forgotten about his or her roots. These activities promote unity at all the transitional ceremonies such as births, weddings, and funerals.
All the dances are accompanied by drums. The men dress as warriors, wave their clubs, and thrust their cowhide shields forward. Zulu folklore is transmitted through storytelling, praise-poems, and proverbs. These explain Zulu history and teach moral lessons. Praise-poems poems recited about the kings and the high achievers in life are becoming part of popular culture.
Before the s, especially in rural areas, being able to send a written letter and get a reply meant that a young boy was ready to go and look for work. Now Zulus want to complete their high school education. In the mind of the Zulu, work should benefit either one's parents or children and siblings. The first salary or the bigger portion , therefore, is usually given to parents in return for blessings.
Children learn the game by watching their older brothers play. Whenever boys are together and not engaged in some household or school activity, they play soccer. Young boys, especially those who live next to big rivers, also compete in swimming. Girls, if they are not at school, are expected to assist their mothers in the house.
However, they can play games once they have finished their chores. Two girls stand opposite each other, usually not more than feet 50 meters apart. Another girl stands between them, facing the one who is holding a tennis ball. The idea of this game is to try to hit the girl standing in the middle while she tries to avoid being hit.
If the ball hits her or touches her clothes, she is out. Being able to avoid being hit ten times earns the girl a point. Having the most points means winning a game and becoming the best player in your circle of friends. One sport which is participated in by both girls and boys is track and field, an organized school sport.
Zulu custom does not mandate formal invitations to gatherings where food will be served, such as weddings and birthday parties. The Zulu believe that food should be shared.
Therefore, uninvited arrival at a celebration is an honor to the host. These celebrations include singing and dancing.
Television is very popular among urban Zulu households. Owning a television set is a luxury for rural Zulu since very few rural areas have electricity. Those who can afford to go to the movies do so. For urban teenagers, American youth culture, especially clothing and music, is very popular. Among adults, stokvels voluntary or common-interest associations provide financial assistance, friendship, and recreation. Women and children weave everyday-use mats, beer sieves, and baskets for domestic purposes.
They also make calabashes decorated gourds used as utensils. Men and boys carve various household objects and ornaments from wood and bone. These include headrests, trays, scrapers, household utensils, and chairs.The clear-cut distinction made today between the Xhosa and the Zulu has no basis in culture or history but arises out of the colonial distinction between the Cape and Natal colonies.
The subtropical climate brings lots of sunshine and brief, intense rain showers. Their written history can be traced back to the fourteenth century. Buthelezi threatened to abandon the Government of National Unity entirely unless his Zulu constituency received greater recognition and autonomy from central government control. Subordinate Substantive Sentences. This derives from a "share what you have" belief which is part of ubuntu humane philosophy.