In June a diplomatic conference in Manila adopted a set of far-reaching and comprehensive amendments to the International Convention on Training. The Manila Amendments were adopted at a Diplomatic Conference in Manila, the of Manila Amendments certificates or flag state endorsements. / uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file//MSNpdf. Clarification of transitional provisions relating to the Manila Amendments to the. STCW Convention and Code. 1. Pursuant to resolution 4.
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New wide-ranging amendments to the STCW rules, agreed by governments in Manila in , are intended to ensure that STCW standards stay relevant, so that. In June significant changes to the STCW (Standards of Training, Certification and These changes, known as “The Manila amendments. A-II/1. A-II/2. A-II/3. A-II/4. A-II/5. A-III/1. A-III/2. A-III/3. A-III/4. A-III/5. A-III/6. A-III/7. A -IV/2. A-V/ A-V/ A-V/2. A-VI/ A-VI/ A-VI/ A-VI/ A-VI/
Thirdly, based on the basic maritime investigation reports, some important association rules of the items of BRM are mined and studied.
Finally, according to the results of the analysis, we provide the suggestions for the work of seafarer training, assessment, and management. Introduction With the development of shipping science, improvement of vessel technology, and the rising trend of multinational manning of ships, maritime safety and marine pollution prevention have been the hot spots in study of the maritime field by all the countries.
Against this background, the focuses of maritime safety research are mainly on two aspects. One is the reasonable use of marine technology resources, which is termed as the seamanship. The other is the proper training of the communication and cooperation in the sailing team, which is named as the teamwork in the ship.
In fact, the good seamanship and the excellent teamwork in the deck crew management of the ship are both the most important factors to avoid the vessel accidents.
In the convention, marine resource management ability, which is the collectivity name of seamanship and the teamwork, becomes one of the mandatory requirements, and both bridge resource management BRM and engine resource management ERM are proposed formally.
So far, a few literatures focus on the data analysis between the vessel accidents and items of BRM. Paper [ 1 ] promoted the rating model for seafarer based on BRM, but it gave the importance of items of BRM by the expert questionnaire without data analysis. Therefore, it is necessary to find some associations, which can reflect the deep inducements of accidents, from the collected maritime accident data to guide the seafarer training.
How manila amendments affect seafarer training and certificates
Generally speaking, a large amount of maritime accident data can be collected from the actual vessel accident; association rule mining, which is a kind of data mining, is a feasible method to analyze this data. During recent years many researches about the association rule mining are proposed [ 2 — 8 ]. Literature [ 2 ] is proposed to integrate classification and association mining techniques according to the target of discovery are not predetermined in association rule mining.
The integration is done by focusing on mining a special subset of association rules, called class association rules CARs. An efficient algorithm is also given for building a classifier based on the set of discovered CARs.
Abstract and Applied Analysis
In [ 3 ], an efficient representation scheme, called general rules and exceptions, is proposed. This paper focused on using the representation to express the knowledge embedded in a decision tree. In this representation, a unit of knowledge consists of a single general rule and a set of exceptions.
This scheme reduces the complexity of the discovered knowledge substantially. It is also intuitive and easy to understand. Authors in literatures [ 4 , 5 ] deal with the algorithmic aspects of association rule mining, and they explain the fundamentals of association rule mining and moreover derive approaches. Paper [ 6 ] presents effective techniques for pruning the search space when computing optimized association rules for both categorical and numeric attributes.
However, to mine the association rules effectively, it needs to tackle the problems on the very large search space of candidate rules during the rule discovery process.
How manila amendments affect seafarer training and certificates
Some intelligent searching methods are used in the rule discovery process, such as literatures [ 7 , 8 ]. The paper [ 7 ] seeks to generate large item sets in a dynamic transaction database using immune clone algorithm, where intratransactions, intertransactions, and distributed transactions are considered for mining association rules.
The paper [ 8 ] proposes an approach, which is based on artificial immune systems, for mining association rules effectively for classification. Instead of massively searching for all possible association rules, this approach only finds a subset of association rules that are suitable for system effective in an evolutionary manner.
However, producing too many rules have been regarded as a major problem with many data mining techniques. The large number of rules makes it very hard for manual inspection of the rules to gain insight of the domain. Many data mining methods mentioned above typically generate a list of rules with no further organization. It is like writing a book or a paper by randomly listing out all the facts and formulas.
This includes willingness to collaborate, information sharing and shared values or standards see Kapucu Connection capacities may be limited in the Arctic, as discussed previously, causing decision-making under ambiguity Behlke Preparations and installations before a cruise journey e.
In order to support communication, chat systems and shared written communication logs have proven to be an efficient tool for command systems to overcome misunderstandings resulting from oral communication. However, as was indicated in the Norwegian Coast Guard SAR info KV , it is at times still problematic with different chat-programs, different cultures and un-coordinated systems, especially in terms of larger incidents including several command structures or cross-border response.
Arctic SAR operations and especially mass rescue operations are very complex and require enhanced experience from the key personnel. The Polar Code will contribute to increased crew and operator knowledge on the unique conditions of the Polar regions, including what is needed as to safety training and manning for emergency situations. Efficient communication and close interaction between the vessel in distress, the OSCs and the SAR mission coordinators are vital, and should be emphasized in all procedures.
This study has shown that exercises are often too limited in scale and scope and do not illuminate the full range of challenges related to mass rescue operations in the Arctic. Advanced OSC courses should be available for a broader spectrum of personnel including the masters and officers of all vessels in Polar regions who are often the first on site. This is particularly important for the crew of large passenger vessels operating in remote areas.
The results of this study indicate that immediate alarm notification and creation of a common situational awareness are key issues induced by the operational knowledge. In mass rescue incidents the leading personnel both on board and on shore, including the OSC, ACO, SAR mission coordinator and staff need to be aware of the capabilities and capacities that may be mobilized in different phases of the emergency.
More efforts towards competence sharing are recommended in all stages of the SAR value chain.
The operators on different levels need in-depth education on decision making under uncertainty, teamwork and leadership. Cross-institutional cooperation in education may help to pinpoint the bottlenecks within the command systems and reveal opportunities on how to integrate different systems. Further studies on the coordination of cross-institutional cooperation, managerial roles, competence sharing and the trust aspect may contribute to increased efficiency in joint actions within the Arctic SAR value chain.
Managerial roles and structuring mechanisms in high complexity-high volatility environments. Transport systems and processes: Marine navigation and safety of sea transportation Google Scholar Ghosh S, Rubly C The emergence of Arctic shipping: issues, threats, costs, and risk-mitigating strategies of the Polar Code.
In: OTC Arctic technology conference. Northern Review 35 Google Scholar Kapucu N Interorganizational coordination in dynamic context: Networks in emergency response management. Connections 26 2 —48 Google Scholar Kapucu N Interagency communication networks during emergencies boundary spanners in multiagency coordination.
Proceedings of the 23rd international conference on port and ocean engineering under arctic conditions June 14—18, Google Scholar Mintzberg H Managing.
POD-publikasjon nr.Written by Jennifer Roy CertRP Published: 24 January Programmed Marine believe that the competence of seafarers is one of the most critical factors in the human element to ensure safe and efficient ship operations.
More information about these requirements can be found in MSN M Please note that your CoC will remain valid until the date of expiry printed in it, the requirements for revalidation are changing from the 1st of January We say that a transaction supports an item set holds. Please see here for a copy of the circular; MSC.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The contributions of this paper are proposing a cross level coding scheme for mining the multilevel association rules; presenting the immune genetic algorithm using our cross level coding scheme for the research of BRM; finding the important association rules of the items of BRM based on the basic maritime investigation reports; providing suggestions to alleviate the incentive of shipwreck in aspect of seafarer training, assessment, and management.
Link layout chaged. It also lays a heavy burden on the mission coordinator at the JRCC, who may experience challenges to allocate adequate resources fast enough.