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A VIAGEM DO DESCOBRIMENTO - EDUARDO BUENO-ISSUU PDF only for issuu publications that are allowed by their authors to be downloaded as pdf. ler A viagem do descobrimento Eduardo Bueno EBook livre PDF/ePub/mobi/mp3 /txt, Embarque nas naus e caravelas da vasta frota comandada por Pedro. A viagem do descobrimento: A verdadeira historia da expedicao de Cabral ( Colecao Terra brasilis, Vol. 1) (Portuguese Edition) [Eduardo Bueno] on.
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Table of contents
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Crossing Borders. Similarly, the lienzos from colonial Mexico are another kind of representation—a visual picture of landscapes, land and water rights, sacred places, and genealogies—that reflects how the indigenous peoples of Mexico perceived their changing world. Reconstructing the depictions of Europeans from the Indian side in Brazil is more difficult, but the work of anthropologists is very insightful.
Anthropologist Laura Graham illustrates how Warodi, a Xavante elder in central Brazil, interpreted past encounters through dreams, and how these images were shared through expressive performances. These portrayals of the past, Graham argues, influenced modern Xavante strategies for interacting with Brazilian government officials.
Comparable kinds of processes undoubtedly existed in the past that historians may be able to recover from written records and the oral tradition. I, too, am a representational go-between as I shape an understanding of sixteenth-century Brazil.
Like other present-day historians, I see multiple stories in the past, and by choosing to focus on some but not all of the possible themes, groups, series of events, or sets of documents, I construct a narrative of the sixteenth century that reflects what I deem important. The three kinds of go-betweens that constitute the conceptual framework of this study are summarized in Table 1.
This book weaves physical, transactional, and representational go-betweens into a chronological narrative of the first hundred years of Brazilian history.
Yet unlike the sixteenth century in Mexican, Peruvian, or Caribbean history, the sixteenth century in Brazilian history still remains poorly understood. By rewinding the narrative of Brazilian history back to the sixteenth century, and by looking for the go-betweens and listening to their voices, the formation of Brazil comes into focus.
In the sixteenth century are rooted many of the most important themes of Brazilian history: the discovery, exploration, and mapping of the land; the history of indigenous groups; the origins of slavery; the development of commercial agriculture; the influence of the Jesuits; the formation of religious identity; the ecological destruction of the tropical forests.
Each of these themes can be developed into a rich narrative spanning the entire century, but it is my intention to tell one story: how the Portuguese won Brazil through the agency of gobetweens.
In telling this story, I dip into many of the thematic narratives of the sixteenth century, and in referencing them I hope to provide a synthetic picture of the sixteenth century in Brazil. Increasingly during the sixteenth century, the arbitration provided by go-betweens granted the advantage to the Portuguese in their struggle with the Indians over which culture would dominate.
With their colonies firmly established along the coast by the end of the sixteenth century, the Portuguese colonists were then able to extend their influence to new regions, where many of the same patterns of interaction would be replicated.
The extensive Portuguese maritime empire that kings of the Portuguese House of Avis had developed systematically from the early fifteenth century began to crack in the last quarter of the sixteenth. Although the administration of Portugal and Brazil remained separate from that of Spain, Portugal and Brazil immediately felt the effects of the Spanish succession. Its destruction dealt a severe blow to Portuguese mercantile trade. Appended to Spain, Portugal, the once proud leader of maritime exploration, was destroyed politically, financially, and morally.
How was this possible? The answers to these questions lie with the go-betweens who are the subject of this book. Seeking to understand these go-betweens and their power, I begin this book with the premise that in the encounters of the sixteenth century, hundreds of go-betweens were present—some named, but most not. I then retell the history of the sixteenth century in order to make the roles of these go-betweens visible.
By examining the three kinds of go-betweens—physical, transactional, and representational—it is possible to see how go-betweens shaped the birth and evolution of the relationship between Portugal and Brazil. The Portuguese gained significant advantage in Brazil not by controlling all of the go-betweens, but by ensuring that the majority of them arbitrated for the Portuguese side. By , the landscape and the peoples of Brazil differed markedly from those of Portugal.
And even if Portugal could claim Brazil as a colony, that did not mean that Portuguese authority reigned supreme. Go-betweens had their own interests and exercised their own power, and conflicts erupted between them, even between those go-betweens who mediated for 14 go-betweens and the colonization of brazil Figure 1.
A go-between in sixteenth-century Brazil. Vallard Atlas, The interests of go-betweens also cast long shadows over the subsequent formation of Brazil. But in a go-betweens 15 sixteenth-century atlas drawn in the French style known as the Dieppe School, several scenes of encounters appear as illustrations drawn over the interior of Brazil.
One detail that portrays a European man engaged in trade with Indian men and women is particularly suggestive of the go-between. The European looks out from Brazil, as if across the Atlantic Ocean. With his index finger, he points to the brazilwood logs that Indian men have assembled.
By his side is a basket of trading goods. The nameless European man portrayed in this cartographic detail is clearly a physical go-between who had crossed the ocean and entered Brazil. Although the artist does not reveal how, it is clear that this man is in charge of the exchange between the European world and Brazil, thus playing the role of the transactional go-between.
For this nameless man who is drawn significantly larger and in more detail than the indigenous men with whom he trades clearly serves the European side. He stands above a carefully drawn coastline that is labeled with names familiar even to this day, and his feet intersect with the radii of the compass rose that the cartographer has drawn just offshore.
This man finds himself in Brazil because of the navigational expertise of European mariners, and he uses his skill to acquire the riches of Brazil. Such encounters and the patterns of interaction they began had occurred before and would be repeated over and over again. As this detail suggests, and as this book shows, go-betweens were central to the colonization of Brazil. Because his destination was India, Cabral remained in Brazil for only ten days, yet those few days in April and May marked the official Portuguese discovery of Brazil.
Every recorded event and observation, therefore, is important and worthy of the attention of historians. But on closer inspection, what stands out in the surviving accounts is the calculated and restrained behavior of the Portuguese. Not only were they not particularly surprised by the situation at hand, but they understood the need to proceed with care. Indeed, the comportment of the Portuguese, as revealed in these accounts, unfolds as if from a script, one that had been written from the experiences of hundreds of mariners before them.
Those mariners had sailed, observed, charted, and mapped the entire west coast of Africa; they had hailed ports in East Africa and India; they had traded with kings; and they had contacted many previously unknown and unfamiliar peoples.
Everything Cabral did in Brazil was informed 18 go-betweens and the colonization of brazil by what the Portuguese had learned from their experience in Africa. And one of the things the Portuguese well understood was the danger of an encounter without go-betweens.
In the fifteenth century, go-betweens facilitated the burst of Portuguese exploration and trade in Africa. Homens do mar men of the sea became physical go-betweens who connected diverse worlds, long isolated from each other. Among the key lessons mastered by Portuguese sea captains in the African trade was the crucial importance of transactional go-betweens— the translators and intermediaries—many of whom were not Portuguese, but Africans and increasingly Afro-Portuguese.
Representational go-betweens drew the maps that guided captains and merchants and that with time dramatically recast how Europeans understood the wider world. Whether their landing in Brazil in was accidental or not, Cabral and his men certainly planned to tie this new land henceforth into the world of Portugal, India, and Africa.
The men on the twelve ships were each physical go-betweens.
Other men certainly hoped to profit in some way from the information they could pass on to potential patrons, such as merchants, when they returned to Lisbon.
But the expedition did not have any transactional go-betweens suitable for Brazil.
Náufragos, Traficantes e Degredados: As Primeiras Expedições Ao Brasil, 1500 1531
Silently observing a well-populated village, the men withdrew. Yet, three months later, when Cabral landed farther south along the coast of Brazil and likewise possessed no translators, the initial encounter was certainly successful from the Portuguese point of view. Legal, Maria Estela. Manuscrito Asuncion: Estudio Uno, ,p. Monte Domecq, Raul y Maria Lourdes Rubiani de Gauto. Idelfonso A. Asuncion: Quell y Carron, , Bs As Graham, E. Cunninghame, Retrato de un Dictador.
Francisco Solano Lopez , Leviatan, Bs. Obra llena de inexactitudes historicas, resentimiento hacia Lopez y un marcado racismo, tomarlo con mucha cautela. Sin embargo, es sabida tambien la tendencia de Nogues en su obra a evitar las referencias a ascendencias negras ver fuente 96, Nogues, Alberto Entrevista, Asuncion, 18 mayo Lloyd enviados por su albacea a Martin Burt.
Inventariados por Andrea Tutte. Decoud Gomez, Yenny Paola. Correspondencia con Martin Romano Garcia, Asuncion, Muniz, sus datos por mail. Sanguinetti Sosa, Maria Felicia. Alfredo Montero Bray Martin Burt. Arturo, Asuncion: Ediciones Napa, E-mail a Martin Burt de fecha abril, 3 jun y 6 jun jim.
Paginas Sociales o de Exequias. Primer Doctor Paraguayo en Medicina. XXII, Datos de su familia. Datos de su familia proporcionados a Martin Romano Garcia. Correspondencia sobre su rama. Datos de su rama de la familia.
Go-Betweens and the Colonization of Brazil: 1500-1600
Libro IV de Matrimonio, folio 40 Libro de Bautismo 9, folio Datos de familia proporcionados a Martin Romano Garcia. Datos de su rama proporcionados a Martin Romano Garcia, Genealogista de Rosario, investigador de esta rama, familias Campana y Espindola.These at first devoted to writing biographies of famous characters, relying on literature and literary language, with plots of novel.
I have taught from this integrated position in a variety universities in Japan for the last 10 years, and so what follows is an outline of a tried and tested approach. Asuncion: Estudio Uno, ,p. By examining the three kinds of go-betweens—physical, transactional, and representational—it is possible to see how go-betweens shaped the birth and evolution of the relationship between Portugal and Brazil.
Burgoyne - Homestead: Chronikblut BOOK. Morris - Men of Science Men of God: This is a learner-centred approach in which the teacher is a facilitator of learning.