Ejaan baru itu oleh masyarakat diberi julukan Ejaan Republik. Beberapa usul yang /S, berhasil merumuskan patokan-patokan baru pada tahun jarah Eropa antara zaman purbakala dan zaman baru (tahun ); berabad-abad v beberapa abad lamanya; beratus-ratus tahun: ~ lamanya bangsa. Pada EYD, huruf diftong hanya tiga yaitu ai, au, oi, sedangkan pada EBI, huruf diftong ditambah satu Dalam EYD, fungsi huruf tebal ada tiga, yaitu menuliskan judul buku, bab, dan Melindo (, batal diresmikan); Ejaan Baru atau Ejaan LBK (–, cikal bakal EYD) Buat buku · Unduh versi PDF · Versi cetak.
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The linguistic wealth of Indonesia is marked by the hundreds of vernaculars spoken throughout 1 Abas, H. The speech communities often coincide with ethnic groupings so that socio-cultural differences are added to the linguistic differences Isman Realising that ethno-linguistic d ifferences among the population of Indonesia could be a serious obstacle to a united independent nation, the leaders of the Indonesian independence movement at the begin ning of this century made a special effort to bring the different groups closer together by making use of the then widely-used lingua franca of the archipelago, the Malay language, hereinafter ML.
This marked the beginning of the adoption of ML for inter-ethnic communication purposes; with this, a national language was in the making. In doing so, the Congress admitted t hat IN was basically a more developed ML, the lingua franca which for centuries had been used in the Indonesian archipelago as the medium of communication between foreigners and natives and among the indigenous peoples of different linguistic and socio-cultural backgrounds.
The status of ML as the appropriate lingua franca for the archipelago was recognised as early as the sixteenth century Alisjahbana , In Malaysia, Malaysia language hereinafter Mal is the country's national language.
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Mal too is an offspri ng of ML. Both dialects, however, being faced with the challenge of new functions, through the years have undergone tremendous change and can no longer be considered to be Riau-Johore Malay. Both languages differ significantly from their original form. Differences between IN and Mal are in large part the result of different political conditions.
Colonisation of the Indonesian archipelago by the Dutch greatly affected the development of IN. Likewise, as a result of British rule Mal absorbed many English words into its vocabulary.
The pledge to make Mal called Malay at the time the sole official and national language was made only in the s, more than two decades after the Indonesian youth pledge. When a constitution was drawn up for independent Malays in one of its clauses, which was to take effect in , stipulated that ML Johore-Riau Malay would be the official and national language of the country Asmah Haji Omar It is the national and official language of Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei.
It is also one of the national languages of Singapore, sharing this position with English, Mandarin and Tamil. First, because native speakers of ML were to be found on both sides of the Strait of Malacca, the European and West and South Asian traders, sailors and missionaries who entered the Indonesian archipelago through this route were exposed to and began to learn ML.
Second, the Malay people themselves often travelled and migrated to other parts of the archipelago, and other ethnic groups coming into contact with them were exposed to and began to learn their language too.
Third, ML is a language of relative simplicity and flexibility both of which are favourable characteristics in the making of a language as an acceptable national or international language Garvin and Mathiot see also Isman , Alisjahbana in Fishman, ed.
Dutch, and English after World War II, played an important role i n the expansion of science and technology in Indonesia. Nevertheless, even in this field these two languages could not prevail over IN and the latter is now used almost exclusively for science and technology and in other academic fields as well.
In Indonesia Dutch has almost vanished entirely and English is limited to reading materials used in institutions of higher education. Arabic played a very important role in the expansion of Islam in the archipelago, but it could not dominate ML either. Through time ML, and later IN, gained wider use in the religious life of the Indonesian Muslim so that today almost all religious sermons and lessons are given in IN.
The use of Arabic is limited to recitation of Koranic verses, which must be translated into IN for most people to understand, and to books on Islamic studies used in schools and institutes specialising in this field.
The success of ML and IN even i n areas where Dutch, English, and Arabic once played important roles i s partly due t o the simplicity and flexibility of the Indonesian language Isman ML or the Indonesian language as such is the main theme of this study. Can ML take over the role of a language of wider communication that English has been playing up to this time in South-East Asia? Further, can ML unify its speakers and give them a regional identity as it does with the multi-ethnic population of Indonesia?
These are two of the questions this study will try to answer. The analysis will be carried out with reference to theories of language modernisation and language planning. The descriptive section of this analysis will include a discussion of the historical development the language has undergone, beginning with its status as a local language, up to its status as the lingua franca of the Indonesian archipelago, through its adoption as the national language of Indonesia in , and on up to its present intermediary stage as a language of wider communication in which it has become one of the modern world languages.
More specifically, this study will delve into 1 the unifying function of IN as a language of supraethnic norm, 2 the process of graphic representation, modernisation, 4 intellectualisation and standardisation the language has undergone, and 3 the spread of IN throughout South-East Asia, particularly in the Indonesian archipelago.
Research for this study employed three kinds of data collecting for three different purposes.
The first was fact-gathering for the purpose of describing the processes of graphic representation, modernisation, intellectualisation, and standardisation, that IN has undergone. The second was compiling data from censuses conducted by the government central as well as provincial , for the purposes of determining the quantitative growth and the spread of the number of speakers of IN.
The third was gathering articles and excerpts on and in IN from each important period of its development, for the purpose of comparing elements of style, its lexicon and its grammar. This study also made use of research reports published by Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa Center for Language Development of the Department of Education and Culture in Jakarta which were based on Center-sponsored questionnaires and interviews undertaken to determine the degree of attitudinal changes towards IN within the older and younger elites and by the layman, of different ethnic groups.
Clarification of their meanings should help avoid misunderstandings. National language Garvin Garvin in Fishman, ed. The first, the emotionally more neutral one, indicates that a given language serves the entire territory of a nation rather than only a regional or an ethnic subdivision.
This is the sense in which, for instance, the term lengua nacional is commonly used in Latin America and in other developing countries; in this sense it is often contrasted with lengua indigena.
For example IN is the lengua nacional of Indonesia while Javanese is only a lengua indigena, just as Tagalog is the lengua nacional of the Philippines and Cebuano, one of a number of lengua indigena found in the country6. The second sense of the term is emotionally more powerful than the first one and indicates that the language functions as a national symbol.
This is how the term is commonly used in emergent nations where it is often contrasted with the language of the former colonial overlord. A good example of this would be IN versus Dutch. The choice of an official language is not based on linguistic considerations. An example of this would be ML in the Republic of Singapore, which shares the role of official language with three other languages, English, Chinese, and Tamil.
Local languages and local vernaculars or indigenous languages are considered to be full-fledged languages. Within the context of this study, however 'dialect' or 'local dialect' language or local vernacular.
A dialect is a local or provincial form of a from other forms, and from the standard or literary form. Karam in Fishman, ed. In discussing the standardisation process, Ray writes that the process consists basically of creating a model for imitation and then of promoting this model over rival models.
His model of imitation includes in it a body of spoken and written discourse directed to listeners and speakers of the language. The body of spoken discourse will depend upon the availability of model speakers, while the body of written discourse is based upon the availability of literature in prose.
For either the spoken or written form of the language, a model of imitation may come into being through organised planned or unorganised effort Karam in Fishman, ed.
Graphisation The most accepted definition of this term is given by Ferguson as follows: graphisation involves the devising of graphic symbols to represent the spoken form, the settling of orthographical problems and the production of textbooks, newspapers, and other kinds of literature.
In short, graphisation refers to the development of a writing system for a hitherto unwritten language. Modernisation, intellectualisation Modernisation mainly involves the creating or borrowing of new lexical items and their incorporation into the basic standard vocabulary.
The task of modernisation is to make available the lexicon and forms of discourse that are required for communicating about contemporary civaisation in order to enable the supra-dialectal norm to be used in all functions that may be required of it cf. Garvin defines intellectualisation as follows: Intellectualisation is a tendency towards increasingly more definite and accurate expression In the lexicon, i ntellectualisation manifests itself by increased terminological preCISIOn achieved by the development of more clearly differentiated terms In grammar, i ntellectualisation manifests itself by the development of word formation techniques and of syntactic devices allowing for the construction of elaborate, yet tightly knit, compound sentences, as well as the tendency to eliminate elliptic modes of expression by requiring complete constructions G arvin in Fishman, ed.
Standardisation, graphic representation, modernisation, and intellectualisation can be seen as intermediate goals of language development. These auxiliary concepts summarise sets of ultimate goals that are attained by means of solutions characterised by the features of graphic representation, modernisation, intellectualisation,.
Jernudd and Das G upta in Rubin and Jernudd, eds Furthermore, standardisation as an intermediate goal may itself be motivated by modernisation. It is not language-specific but is directed towards language i n one of its applications. Perkembangan Ejaan Bahasa Indonesia.
Penggunaan huruf kapital dan huruf miring. Penggunaan tanda baca. Penggunaan kutipan langsung dan tidak langsung. Penggunaan kata baku dan tidak baku. Penggunaan kata-kata serapan. Penulisan nama pengarang dalam kutipan.
Penggunaan awal dan akhiran dari bahasa asing. Daftar singkatan dan akronim. Pd, Hayatun Nufus, S. Semua materi tersebut sangat dibutuhkan untuk mempelajari bahasa Indonesia. Buku ini disusun secara sistematis dan praktis sehingga enak dibaca dan mudah dipelajari. Pd Statement. Buku ini sangat wajib menjadi panduan mempelajari Bahasa Indonesia, terutama bagi yang menyukai Dunia Penulisan seperti Penulis Cerpen, Novelis, Jurnalistik, Wartawan, Skenario dan lain sebagainya.
Kerancuan atau kesalahpahaman mengenai penggunaan kata hubung, sambung dan berbagai aturan lainnya, dijelaskan dengan sangat terperinci di sini. Akhir kata, buku inilah satu-satunya buku terlengkap tata bahasa yang akan membantu kamu dalam menekuni dan bergelut di berbagai Duni Penulisan 'Article Engkay Sobariah S.
It informs on the realisation among language teachers of the need to be informed on the contributions of research to language learning and to enable them to better reflect on instructional design and practices, and their underlying theories. This book is intended for ESL researchers, teachers and students, especially those who are interested in expanding and developing their knowledge in language teaching not just based on their own experiences in language classrooms but also on current contributions of research on issues in language teaching, pedagogy and curriculum in the region.
Buku ini berisi: 1. Pedoman Umum Pembentukan Istilah 3. Dengan terbitnya buku persembahan penerbit Visimedia Pustaka ini, diharapkan dapat membantu siswa, guru, mahasiswa, pendidik dan pengajar, para praktisi bahasa, serta masyarakat umum pengguna dan penutur bahasa memahami kaidah berbahasa Indonesia, terutama kaidah ejaan yang berlaku. Mapi, tenang guys jangan pesimis gitu deh. Alasan mengapa buku ini bisa menjadi solusi CERDAS buat kamu: Penjabaran Konsep Dasar dari materi pelajaran tiap bab diset secarakhusus sehingga lebih mudah dipahami dan dihafalkan.
Adanya Petunjuk-petunjuk Praktis mengenai penggunaan pola-pola bahasa dalam kalimat dapat memudahkan kamu untuk menerapkannya dalam menyelesaikan soal-soal ujian, baik untuk pelajaran bahasa Indonesia maupun bahasa Inggris. Tampilan buku yang praktis dan handy membuat kamu bisa membawa dan membacanya di mana dan kapan saja.
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Udah gak zaman bawa-bawa buku se-gede Gaban Gede Banget. Cukup satu Buku Mini, tapi Master Isinya. Bahkan, beberapa negara telah memasukkan pelajaran bahasa Indonesia dalam kurikulum sekolahnya dan membuka jurusan bahasa Indonesia. Bukan tidak mungkin, suatu saat dengan makin banyaknya pengguna, bahasa Indonesia dapat menjadi bahasa internasional.
Dengan demikian, kita perlu melestarikan bahasa Indonesia, yaitu dengan menggunakan bahasa sesuai dengan aturan yang dibakukan. Buku EYD dan Seputar Kebahasa-Indonesiaan persembahan penerbit dari Ruang Kata ini disusun untuk para pemakai bahasa Indonesia, agar dapat menjadi penutur bahasa yang baik. Selain berisi pedoman umum ejaan bahasa Indonesia yang disempurnakan, buku ini juga memuat aspek-aspek penting dalam penggunaan bahasa Indonesia, seperti pedoman umum pembentukan istilah, pembakukan istilah komputer, singkatan dan akronim, daftar lengkap kata baku dan tidak baku, jenis kata dan pertalian makna kata, gaya bahasa majas , pantun, dan kumpulan peribahasa.
Jadi tepatlah jika buku ini dijadikan panduan bagi setiap pengguna bahasa Indonesia, baik pelajar, guru, mahasiswa, dan pemakai bahasa Indonesia pada umumnya yang mempunyai komitmen untuk selalu berbahasa Indonesia dengan baik dan benar.
Seringkali kita kebingungan bilamana menggunakan huruf kapital, menulis tanda baca, atau menulis unsur-unsur serapan dari bahasa asing, sehingga timbul kekacauan dalam pemakaian bahasa.I am 22 years old and now at my 6th semester at on my study.
This study exposes two fundamental defects in the government measures and in the criticism itself. Selain berisi pedoman umum ejaan bahasa Indonesia yang disempurnakan, buku ini juga memuat aspek-aspek penting dalam penggunaan bahasa Indonesia, seperti pedoman umum pembentukan istilah, pembakukan istilah komputer, singkatan dan akronim, daftar lengkap kata baku dan tidak baku, jenis kata dan pertalian makna kata, gaya bahasa majas , pantun, dan kumpulan peribahasa.
Di Indonesia, buku ini dikenal dengan judul Impian Paviliun Merah.
Saya juga melampirkan data pendukung sebagai berikut: