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Disponível em: pdf>. Acesso em FIANI, Ronaldo. Teoria dos Jogos. Rio de Janeiro. Download or Read Online Teoria dos Jogos Ronaldo. Fiani Free eBook PDF/ ePub/Mobi/Mp3/Txt, Teoria dos. Jogos 4ª edição tem como objetivo difundir os. Veja grátis o arquivo SEMI Jogos_de_Empresa_pdf enviado para a com base no livro Teoria dos Jogos, do autor Ronaldo Fiani, editora Elsevier,
Introduction T his article aims to test the hypothesis that democratic countries would also be those with lower concentration of ownership of media. Testing association between variables variables related to economic influence over media pluralism, political participation and democratic values.
This article does not aim to observe possible causal relationships, but possible correlations. Technically, we use descriptive statistics and correlation tests to analyze the data compiled by the Quality of Government Institute: dataset codebook Teorell et al.
Based on the systematic variables available in the database consulted, the working hypothesis was split into three statements in order to validate our analysis. They are the following ones: Ha1 there is a negative correlation between democracy index and economic influence over the media; Ha2 there is a correlation of negative variance between political pluralism as well as participation and economic influence over the media; Ha3 there is a correlation of negative variance between democratic political culture and economic influence over the media.
It was expected to confirm the working hypotheses, from checking a strong correlation magnitude, i. Then, in the Codebook, we are able to identify four variables that empirically approached the theoretical debate. They are: economic influence over the media, democracy index, political pluralism and participation, and democratic political culture. After the descriptive examination of each of the variables, we analyzed the association and came to the conclusion that there is a negative correlation between the level of economic influence over media and the degree of democratization.
Theoretical aspects The media occupy a prominent position in various fields of social sciences research. For Djankov , in modern economies and societies, the availability of information is central to better decision making by citizens and consumers.
In political markets, citizens require information about candidates to make intelligent voting choices. In economic markets, including financial markets, consumers and investors require information to select products and securities DJANKOV et al. Not surprisingly, the media is an object of state control in different countries, to a greater or lesser degree, being those authoritarian or not.
One of the most celebrated authors to establish that dialogue between the two issues was Dahl ; , for whom alternative sources of information would be one of the necessary conditions for democracy. The relationship between media pluralism and democracy is also under investigation in Africa Blankson, , Central America Rockwell, and Eastern Europe Marin; Lengel, Testing association between variables However, the lack of alternative sources of information is not only a characteristic of those called authoritarian countries: the ownership concentration of the means of mass Communication is also observed in democratic regimes —in those cases, however, the concentration occurs in the private sphere Djankovet al.
Extensive study conducted in 97 countries by Djankovet al.
State ownership is also vast. The control of information through private institutions in democratic countries was also object of study carried out by Sociedad y Press Institute IPYS. This concentration would mean a dysfunction in democratic regimes, since, in practice, represents the removal of the possibility of institutionalization of alternative sources of information, necessary requirement for democracy, according to Dahl ; So, arguments arise against the free market when it comes to the Media industry, since this economic logic would encourage the formation of oligopolies and hence the potential suppression mentioned above BUCKLEY, That is, normatively, the regulation of production and dissemination of symbolic goods could not receive the same treatment to products consumed in shopping centers, for example, precisely because of its potential to shape the choices of those who consume them.
Democratic countries tend to be those with lower concentration of Media ownership. Theoretically, the concentration of this potential in the hands of few owners, government or businessmen, would prejudice the public interest and, therefore, the democracy Baker, ; Buckley, The basic standard for democracy would then be a very wide and fair dispersal of power and ubiquitous opportunities to present preferences, views, visions.
This is a democratic distribution principle for communicative power — a claim that democracy implies as wide as practical a dispersal of power within public discourse BAKER, , p.
Thus, the dispersion of control over the Media by regulatory processes would be understood as a reflection of basic values to the establishment of rules on regulation of Media ownership in democracies — an incentive to the existence of alternative sources of information.
Variables and Hypotheses The literature reviewed suggests, therefore, the following association: the more democratic a country, would be the less concentrated Media ownership. At the same time, more pluralistic and developer of democratic values would be the same country.
Therefore, its citizens would be more participative.
This article proposes to test through statistical tools evidence of these associations but without venturing to point out the existence of possible causal relationships between variables.
The intention is, in exploratory way, identify the possibility of verify such associations provided in the literature. Testing association between variables , between and , and between , from The higher the value, the less democratic is the country. V3 Political Pluralism and Participation Freedom House : discrete variable that proposes to examine the right to freedom of organization among political parties, the existence of opposition with real chances to garner support, the ability of people to make choices free from military coercion, totalitarian parties or other power group; existence of minority political rights.
The index ranges from 0 least plural to 16 most plural. The index also varies between 0 least democratic to 10 most democratic. First, however, we present a descriptive data analysis. It is known that the possibility to check some degree of sampling error is inherent in the use of samples Dancey; Reidy, However, it is worth mentioning that, taking into account the research field, a relevant sample is found.
That helps to avoid the high degree risk of errors of that nature, which are typical of small samples. The standard deviation of 6. Testing association between variables Table 1 — Descriptive statistics — economic influence over the Media Chart 1 illustrates the representation of data on the economic influence over the Media.
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One should be cautious about data that does not show normal distribution, since such feature may be due to sampling errors. Accordingly, the observations above also apply to that sample. It appears, moreover, that average is 6. The standard deviation of 3. This means that most of the sample values are 3.
There is also a breadth of Table 2 — Descriptive statistics — democracy Index The histogram illustrated in Chart 2, however, shows a non-normal distribution. It can be argued that the data indicate a bimodal distribution, but with a larger tail to the right, i. That distribution suggests caution regarding the use of the mean as a measure of central tendency. One should also be cautious about the application of techniques that departs from the assumption that the analyzed data are normally distributed.
The amplitude is 16 and the average is The standard deviation of 5. It is the second largest standard deviation among those listed in this article. That is, one senses a certain asymmetry of the data distribution when compared to the others.
Table 3 — Descriptive statistics - political pluralism and participation The histogram below Chart 3 illustrates a non-normal distribution. The tail abruptly raised to the right, close to the value of 15, suggesting a negative asymmetrical distribution. In cases of pronounced asymmetry, one should be cautious about the use of the mean as a measure of central tendency, since, in such circumstances, it is more susceptible to distortions caused by the values of the tail.
Those Y deletions which are compatible with the presence of spermatozoa in the testis or in the ejaculate are obligatorily transmitted to the male offspring, therefore genetic counselling is mandatory.
The extent of spermatogenic failure of the son may vary substantially, however given the strict causeeffect relationship between AZF deletions and impaired spermatogenesis, normal spermatogenesis cannot be expected. The EAA guidelines provide a set of primers two markers for each region which is able to detect virtually all clinically relevant deletions.
The initial large variability of deletion frequencies was more likely the consequence of technical problems and the use of unreliable markers rather than the existence of true ethnic differences. A 7 times higher risk OR 7. Schematic representation of theY chromosome with the AZF regions. However, both the frequency and phenotypic expression may vary in different ethnic groups, depending on the Y chromosome background in specic Y haplogroups, such as D2b and Q3, common in Japan and certain parts of China, the deletion is xed and apparently does not have any negative effect on spermatogenesis.
A recent meta-analysis which considers only those studies which are free of methodological and selection biases reports an overall 2. Patients with mild PAIS have male infertility as their primary or even sole symptoms. This condition can be suspected on the basis of hormone prole especially high Androgen Sensitivity Index ASI and hypoandrogenization.
Since the frequency of mutations in the AR gene in unselected infertile men including both normal and high ASI varies between Although both FSH values and testis C. Scrotal Color Doppler ultrasound is usually performed in the case of varicocele for grading. Given that the incidence of testis cancer is higher in patients with history of cryptorchidism and in those affected by severe impairment of spermatogenesis especially if testicles are severely hypotrophic , testis ultrasound in these patients is advised for preventive purposes.
In about 2. Although TM can be seen in various benign and malignant processes, it has a remarkable association with testis cancer especially with its pre-invasive state. According to a recent review70 the presence of TM is an indication for testicular biopsy if the patient has more than one risk factor for testis cancer e. The biopsy might reveal Carcinoma in Situ CIS which is considered a precursor lesion of testic cancer.
Genetic testing should be performed according to the semen phenotype caryotype and Y deletions and level of androgenization AR gene mutation screening. These idiopathic cases are likely to be of genetic origin since the number of genes involved in human spermatogenesis is probably over thousands71 and only a small proportion of them has so far been identied and even fewer has been analyzed. Mutational analyses of a few spermatogenesis candidate gene have been performed mainly in research context and up to now translation of results into clinical practice is lacking.
Besides SNPs structural variations such as copy number variations in regions or in multicopy genes relevant to spermatogenesis could also contribute to infertility. An increased incidence of malformations and chromosomal anomalies was reported especially when the reason for performing ART was severe male factor infertility. There is an urgent need for an intense research in the eld of genetics and epigentics of male infertility with special interest towards gene-environmental interaction not only to provide the missing etiologic factors but also to ensure appropriate genetic counselling and a rational basis for the development of future etiology-based prevention and therapies.
It is likely that a proportion of spermatogenic disturbance is due to gene-environmental interaction and genetic background may create variability in sensitivity to environmental factors. Besides genetic studies, epigenetic analysis of the male gamete is also warranted. Conicts of interest The author declares that she has no conicts of interest.
Acknowledgements The author thanks Prof. Daguin, C.
Giachini, E. Guarducci, S. DeglInnocenti, I. Laface, F. Nuti, for their contribution to the original data presented in this review. Funding from Telethon Italy no. GGP; to C. Clinical review evaluation and treatment of the infertile couple. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism ; World Health Organization. WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen. WHO Press, Mutations along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis affecting male reproduction.
Reproductive Biomedicine Online ; The genetic and molecular basis of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Nature Reviews Endocrinology ; 5: Pitteloud N, Acierno Jr.
Reversible kallmann syndrome, delayed puberty, and isolated anosmia occurring in a single family with a mutation in the broblast growth factor receptor 1 gene. Homozygous mutation in the prokineticin-receptor2 gene ValAsp presenting as reversible Kallmann syndrome and persistent oligozoospermia: case report.
Teoria dos Jogos - Ronaldo Fiani.pdf.pdf
Human Reproduction ; Treatment of infertility in men with spinal cord injury. Nature Reviews Urology ; 7: EAU guidelines on ejaculatory dysfunction. European Urology ; International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents ; 31 Suppl. The Giessen Cohort Study on patients with prostatitis syndromean evaluation of inammatory status and search for microorganisms 10 years after a rst analysis.
Andrologia ; Stimulation of oxidant generation by human sperm suspensions using phorbol esters and formyl peptides: relationships with motility and fertilization in vitro. Fertility and Sterility ; Abnormal distribution of CF delta F allele in azoospermic men with congenital aplasia of epididymis and vas deferens.
Lancet ; The genetic basis of congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens and cystic brosis.
Journal of Andrology ; Mutations of the cystic brosis gene and congenital absence of the vas deferens. Molecular evaluation of CFTR sequence variants in male infertility of testicular origin. International Journal of Andrology ; Cystic brosis transmembrane conductance regulator is vital to sperm fertilizing capacity and male fertility. CFTR mutations and polymorphisms in male infertility.
The inuence of varicocele on parameters of fertility in a large group of men presenting to infertility clinics. Towards more objectivity in diagnosis and management of male fertility.
Results of a World Health Organization multicentre study. International Journal of Andrology ; Suppl 7. WHO manual for the standardized Investigation, diagnosis and management of the infertile male. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Assessment of efcacy of varicocele repair for male subfertility: a systematic review. Treatment of varicocele in subfertile men: the Cochrane review a contrary opinion. Guidelines on male infertility.
Varicocele and infertility.
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation ; Effects of varicocele treatment in adolescents: a randomized study.State ownership is also vast. Since first economic models regarding political behavior, it became a tradition in positive political science to borrow some concepts from mainstream economic theory, as costs, payment and market failure.
Teoria Dos Jogos Ronaldo Fiani.pdf
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